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Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature
A chronology of the history of literature in Arabic written in English is the subject of the article References and related works. For more information, see chronology of Arabic literature in English. This chronology begins with Arabic and English texts from the third millennium BC through the nineteenth century, the only century for which texts exist in both languages.
Ancient Arabic literature is that of the Middle East. It arose with the spread of Islam. The early Arab golden age (roughly 750-900 CE) produced a large corpus of poetry, prose and other literary genres, in the Classical Arabic language, which is often regarded as a literary norm. The golden age witnessed the work of poets such as al-Ašʿara and al-Sanāʾ. Classical Arabic literature continued to evolve and flourish until the end of the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258, when its key centres shifted to Egypt and the Maghreb.
The modern era of literature in Arabic began in the early 19th century with the emergence of the Mutasarrifate of Damascus and Ottoman-controlled Syria as a regional centre. The problem with this argument is that the earliest literary works written in Arabic were not composed by authors with Egyptian, Syrian or Palestinian-located names until the 13th century. Despite the predominance of literary works in Classical Arabic, vernacular Arabic was able to survive and produce an immense corpus of literature until it gradually died out during the Ottoman era.
Although it took decades longer, modern Arabic literature is a flourishing literary discipline with regard to quantity, quality and creativity. Aside from the Egyptian school of literature, which held sway over much of the early 20th century, modern Arabic literature was started by a group of authors led by Muhsin Mahdi (1878–1966) and other writers such as Badiʾ al-Zaman al-Hamadhani and Tawfiq al-Hakim. Arabic literature became most prolific during the modernism (1920s and 1930s) when a number of important authors emerged, including al-Nadim (born 1878), al-Baghdadi (born 1913), al-Asʿad (born 1916), Mudarrizi (born 1924) and Tawfiq al-Hakim (born 1912).
The most prominent current representatives of Arabic literature are the
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