Introduction To Semiconductor Devices By Kevin F Brennan Solution Manual
Most published works in metallic field-effect transistor devices utilize the field-induced conductance change as a means of measuring the gas adsorption. However, for simple semiconductors like ZnO, which is easily decomposed in moist air, the adsorption phenomenon is absent at low (n<1013) and high (n>1014) charge density regions. Another drawback of field-induced conductance change technique is that it is limited to planar devices. Field-induced conductance changes as measured by scanning gate microscopy (SGM) can be useful in detecting the surface oxidation. It is also possible to detect gas adsorption to a simple semiconductor through change of work-function using SGM technique. (author)
The evolution of high-voltage, high-power, high-frequency, high-density, high-speed, highly efficient, high-flux, and integrated circuits has created an industry with extensive requirements for epitaxial growth. Glass must be processed, substrates must be cleaned, materials must be transported, held, transported, masked, patterned, etched, and/or processed, and this must be done repeatedly for 1000s of discrete steps to make thousands of integrated circuits. In the fabrication of integrated circuits, several types of operations are carried out such as, deposition, etching, photolithography, ion implantation, thin film formation, and stripping. As a result, contamination can be generated during these processes, which results in a lowering of the yield of semiconductor devices. In order to obtain high quality semiconductor devices, a sequential cleaning process has been devised with moving parts such as arm, vacuum box, chuck, wafer transfer robot, etc. Cleaning technology is essential to semiconductor manufacturing processes. For etching, cleaning, and stripping technology, physical vapor deposition (PVD) is used. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), ion implantation, electron beam evaporation, flame-spray deposition, and sputtering are used for film deposition technology. Each of these processes is performed at a high vacuum of < 1 mTorr for all processes. For the standard cleaning and etching processes, the wafer is immersed in a chemical bath. Typical wafer cleaning processes include RCA cleaning, RCA bead cleaning, RCA polish, and SC1, SC2, and SC3. For wafer chemical etching, typical etching processes include RCA etch, KOH etch, DI and sulfuric acid etches, and a plasma etch. These types of operations are repeated several times to make semiconductor devices such as a transistor, FET, memory cell, light-emitting diode, etc.
The field of semiconductor device fabrication has experienced major advances, as a result of the increasing density of highly integrated electronic devices. In particular, this progress has stemmed from an increasing level of confidence that the devices will not fail due to the absence of a specific defect. However, there are many more reliable ways to fabricate electronic devices than micromachining using reactive ion etching or by ion implantation of dopants. Inorganic semiconductor films and devices are described. New strategies for achieving film-by-film electrochemical fabrication. The effects of the larger scale processes, such as film growth and patterning are discussed.
For this chapter I will discuss the fabrication of compound semiconductor devices, in particular the fabrication of active devices such as diodes and transistors. In the first part of the chapter, I will cover the subject of substrate growth and device fabrication. I will also cover the experimental strategy for measuring the characteristics of the new devices. The theory of ion implantation, metal and semiconductor growth will be treated in the subsequent chapters.
Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 6 0. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based ‘hybrid’ solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials’ aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices